MA Second Semester

Course Title: Rural Community Development (RCD)


Course No.: MARDS 561

Nature of the Course: Theory and Practical                             Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                      Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Second                                                                          Total Period: 48

Level: MA


Course objective

This course aims to enable students to understand concept, process and strategies associated with community development in a developing countries like Nepal. After completion of this course students can apply community development techniques and tools in the real field.

Course Contents                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     TH

Unit I: Community and Community Development     (12)                                        

  • Community and community development: concept, principles and values
  • Community development: as process, strategy and method.
  • Different stakeholders and their roles of community development
  • Need and importance of community development for rural development


Unit II: Theories of Community Development and their application in rural development                 (12)

2.1   Socio-democratic Theory of Community Development (Antonio Gramsci)

2.2   System theory in Community Development (Ludwig von Bertalanffy)

Unit III: Some cross cutting issues in community development: (10)

3.1  Participation  and inclusion of  community for collective interest

3.2    Good governance and  social accountability

3.3  Collaboration and negotiation at different level and maintenance of group dynamics

3.4   Social inclusion

3.5   Leadership and social empowerment


  1. History of Community Development and Community based Organizations of Nepal (14)


4.1 History of Community Development

(Pre-Unification, Unification and Rana Period, Planned Development Period (2007-2017),  Panchyat Period, After 2046 BS- BOVO, PDDP, LGP, DLGSP)

4.2 Development of Community – based Organizations in Nepal (CBOs): Indigenous and induced


Practical portion:

  1. Students can be trained to develop the skill of community facilitator. For it, a package training can be provided for 7 days.
  2. Students can be involved to review the successful case studies of community development programs of national and regional level
  3. A field study can be organized to for the students to collect some of the community development practices being followed in their locality.


Asian Productivity Organization. (2002) Successful Community Development, Tokyo.

Bhattachan, Krishna Bahadur. (ed.). Development Practices in Nepal.

Biddle, William W. (1965). The Community Development Process, New Delhi: Amerind Publishing Company Ltd.

Chekki, Dan A. (1979). Community: Theory and Method of Planned change, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Dore, Ronald and Zoe Mars. (eds). (1981). Community Development, Croom Helm, London: UNESCO Paris.

Harmston, Flayd K. (1983), The Community as an Eco-System. The Iowa State University Press/Ames, USA.

Jatch, John K. (1965). What Does Community Development Really Mean?. Washington DC: Peace Corps Volunteers Office.

Journal of Agriculture Development Bank – Agricultural credit. (Vol. 39. January 2006).

Korten, David C. (1980). Community Organization and Rural Development: A Learning Process Approach.

Kunwar, Krishna Bahadur (2064 B.S) Poverty and Community Development, Theory and Practice, Meena Prakashan, Kathmandu.

NPC – Various Plan Documents

Pyakuryal, Kailash. (1990). Community Development and Challenges and Prospects, Kathmandu: REDD BARNA.

Richard Peer and Elaine Harswick (2010), Theories of Development Contentions, Argument Alternatives, Rawat Publications, Jaipur, India.

Shrestha, Mangala (2009), “Community Development” Question Publication, Kathmandu.

Simon, During (2008), The Cultural Studies Reader, Rouledge, Taylor and Francis Group, London and Newyork.

Somesh Kumar (2007), Tenth Printing Methods for Community Participation, Vistaar Publications, New Delhi.

Stiefel, Mathisa. (1996) UNDP in Conflict and Disasters: An Overview Report of the Continuum Project. Graduate Institute of International Studies: Geneva.

Tripathi, Satyendra. (1987). Development or Rural Poor, Rawat Publications: Jaipur.

UNDP. (1998). Nepal Human Development Report, Kathmandu: UNDP.

UNDP. (2006). Governance in Post Conflict Countries. Management, Development and Governance Division, Bureau of Development Policy.

Course Title: Rural Development Planning, policy and Strategy

Course No.: MRDS 562

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                      Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Second                                                                          Total Period: 48


Course objectives

This course basically aims to acquaint students to analyze planning process for rural development. Students will also be able to examine development policies and strategies implemented in developing countries like Nepal. After completion of this course, it is expected that students can formulate plan and policies for local bodies in Nepal.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit 1: Planning for Rural Development   (13)

  • . Concept and types of planning .
  • Pre-requisite of successful planning.
  • Approaches of plan formulation.
  • Comparative study on planning in capitalistic, socialistic and mixed economies
  • Concept and need of choice of techniques in planning
  • Concept and need of capital output ratio (COR)
  • Concept of regional and Local development planning.
  • Critical analysis of current plan of Nepal .

UNIT 2: Policy Formulation for Rural Development (11)

2.1   concept of strategic plan ,Tactical plan and operational plan

2.2   framework of strategic planning.

2.3 Concept , Need and Goals R.D. policy.

2.4  Model of policy formulation.

  1. 5 Policy cycle and format.

2.6  Factors and tools of policy appraisal.

2.7 Identification of rural problems and prioritization of programmes and projects.

UNIT 3: Strategies and Instrument for Rural Development  (12)

3.1 Issues and Choice of policy instrument for R.D.

3.2 An action system.

3.3 Process of Rural Transformation and its major intervention area for R.D.

3.4 Need and Type of R.D strategy.

3.5 Strategy formulation process.

3.6 Constraints on the choice of strategy.

3.7 Problem and Prospect of target setting in R.D process.


UNIT 4: Critical Review of Policy and Program Related to Rural Development (12)

4.1 Poverty alleviation policies and approaches in Nepal (with reference to plan period).

4.2 Land reform policies and program in Nepal .

4.3 Rural development policy and program  in Nepal ( with reference to plan period )

4.4 financial management policy and strategy of VDC and DDC (source ,authority ,effectiveness)

4.5 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) ,Poverty  Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)

4.6 Agricultural Perspective plan (APP)



Bista, S. K.(2000). Rural development in Nepal: An alternative strategy. Kathmandu: Udaya Books.

Blackely, E.J.,& Ted, K.B.(2003). Planning Local Economic Development: Theory & Practice. New Delhi:Vistaar publication.

CBS.(2010/11).Nepal Living Standard Survey III. Kathmandu:CBS.

Chambers, R. (1989). Rural development: Putting the last first. London: Longman Publishers

Devi, L.(1997). Strategic planning for rural development. New Delhi: Anmol Publications

Jain, S.C. (1985). Rural Development: Institutions and strategies. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

Jhingan, M.L.(2007). The economics of development planning. Delhi: Vrinda Publications.

Lekhi, R.K.(2008). Economic Development and Planning. New Delhi: Kalyani Publisher.

Mathema, K. R. B. (2008). Economics of Development. Kirtipur: New Hira Books Enterprises.

Mathema, K.B.(2001). Strategies for rural development in Nepal: Some observations, some thoughts. Kathmandu.

Ministry of Finnance (M0F) National Budget of Nepal(latest)

Ministry of Finnance (MoF). Economic Survey (latest)

NPC.( 2011) Thirteenth Plan( 2070/2071-2072/2073). Kathmandu:NPC

NPC/ ADB(2007A). Regional Development Strategy: main text and annexes. Kathmandu: The author.

Pradhan, P.K. (2012). Urban Rural Relations and Rural Development in Developing World. Kathmandu: Quest Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Reejal, P.R.(2002). Fundamental of Public Policy Analysis( 2nd  ed.) Kathmandu: Prithvi Prakashan

Sapru, R.K.(2004). Public Policy: Formulation, Implementation and Evaluation(2nd ed.). New Delhi: Sterling Publication

Seddon, D.(1998). Nepal: A State of Poverty. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Shakya, R. K. (2013). Planning Experiences in Nepal. Kathmandu. NA

Singh, K.(2009). Rural development; Principles, policies and management(3rd ed.). New Delhi:Sage Publications.

Todaro, M.P & Smith, S.C. (2010). Economic development (10th edition). Delhi: Pearson Education









Course Title: Rural Urban Linkage

Course No.:  MRDS 563

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                      Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Second                                                                          Total Period: 48

Level: MA


Course objectives

The general objectives of the course are to acquaint the students with advance knowledge of rural urban linkage focusing on settlement system, to enable the students understanding and applying basic theoretical framework in rural/regional development plan and policies, to acquaint the students with knowledge of Technique and measure of rural urban relation and use them for rural development planning, to make students able to review the policy and programmes applied in Nepal to strengthen rural urban linkage.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Chapter I: Conceptual Basis for Urban Rural Linkage (12)

  • Concept of Rural Urban Linkage
  • Typologies of Rural Urban Linkage
  • Conceptual Issues in urban rural linkage: Distinction, Dichotomy and Continuum
  • Factors for evolution of early settlement: Hydraulic, economic, social and religious.
  • Historical development and change of settlement system in Nepal
  • Settlement pattern and ecological region of Nepal
  • Planning implication of dispersed and scattered settlement
  • Constraints of Rural Urban Linkage

Unit II: Theoretical Framework for Rural Urban Linkage     (16)

2.1 Central Place Theory (Christaller)

2.2 Gateway Model

2.3 Urban Land Use Model (Von Thunen)

2.4 Spatial diffusion of innovation model (T. Hagerstrand)

2.5 Core-Periphery linkage model

2.6 Spatial development models (Growth Pole/Center, Aggropolitan Model, Service Center Approach, Market Center Approach)

Unit III: Tools and Techniques of Rural Urban Relation   (12)

3.1  Urban Center Measure – Identification or urban/growth centers; Density and distribution measures; Centrality measures (Scalogram, infrastructure index, centrality Index, composite weighted index)

3.2  Hinterland Measure – Expected (natural, administrative and graphic- thiessen polygon and breaking point theory); Actual – origin and destination survey and mapping.

3.3  Urban Rural Linkage Measures – Spatial Interaction model; Flow model; Facility location measures; Relative measures of service accessibility.

Unit IV: Integrated R-U Linkage Planning, Policy & Program (8)

4.1  Integrated rural urban linkage planning

4.2  Strategies to rural urban integrated development

4.3  Rural Urban Linkage policy developments in Nepal

4.4  Program related to rural urban linkage: Past and Present such as RUPP, PPPUE, MEDEP, PAF


Potter, R.B, and Unwin, T. (1990). The Geography of Urban Rural Interaction in Developing Countries, Routledge.

Tacoli, C. (2002). Changing rural-urban interactions in sub-Saharan Africa and their impact on livelihoods: a summary, Rural-urban working paper 7, IIED, London.

Lynch, K. (2004). Rural Urban Interaction in the Developing World. Taylor & Francis, Science. Routledge Perspective on Development. London:Routledge.

Tacoli, C. (2006). The Earthscan Reader in Rural Urban Linkages, Earthscan, London: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).

Pradhan P.K and Routary, J. K. (1992). Market Center and Rural Development: A Study in Chitwan District, Nepal. Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology

ESCAP (1979). Guideline for Rural Central Planning. New York: Economic and Social Commission on Asia and the Pacific.

Pradhan P.K. (2012). Urban Rural Relations and Rural Development in Developing World. Kathmandu: Quest Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Todaro, M. P. (1969). A Model of Labor Migration and Urban Unemployment in Less Developed Countries. The American Economic Review, Vol. 59 (1) 138-148.


















Course Title: Rural Project Management


Course No.: MARDS 564

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                      Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Second                                                                          Total Period: 48

Level: MA



Course aim and objectives

The objective of this course is to acquaint the students with the basic idea of rural project management. The course aims at developing the skills in students of project identification, preparation and analysis, appraisal, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development projects in the Nepalese context.


Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH


  1. Introduction to Project Management (10)

1.1 Concept and characteristics of project and project management

1.2 Project classification

1.3 Inter-relation between plan, program, project and activities

1.4 Project cycle

1.5 Skill, role and responsibilities of a project manager


  1. Rural project organization, project formulation process and appraisal (16)


2.1 Project organization

2.1.1 Concept and types of project organization

2.1.2 Project team building

2.1.3 Leadership and project organization

2.1.4 Project proposal


  1. 2 Project formulation process

2.2.1 Project formulation techniques Social analysis Economic analysis Environmental analysis Technical analysis Market analysis Financial analysis Resource analysis

       2.2.2 Detailed project report format


2.3 Project appraisal

2.3.1 Tools of project appraisal


  1. Project implementation, monitoring and evaluation (14)

3.1 Project implementation

3.1.1 Procedure for project implementation

3.1.2 Time management

3.1.3 Logistic management

3.1.4 Conflict management

3.2 Monitoring and evaluation

3.2.1 Project control

3.2.1 Project control system

3.2.2 Project control techniques

3.2.2 Project monitoring and evaluation in Nepal(PAF, LGCDP)

3.2.3 Project monitoring and evaluation approaches of International agencies



  1. Rural project management in Nepal (8)

4.1 Rural project management in developing countries with special reference to Nepal

4.2 Problems and challenges in rural project implementation in Nepal

4.3 Requirements for successful rural project management




Denis, L.(1997). Handbook of project management. Mumbai: Jaico Publishing House.

Harold, K. (1984). Project management-A system to planning, scheduling and controlling (2nd ed). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

Lary, R. (2008). Project management step by step. New Delhi: Sultan Chand & Sons.

Prasanna, C. (2006). Projects planning, analysis, selection, financing, implementation and review(6th ed). New Delhi:Tata-McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

Robert, B.(1997). The project management. London: Prentice Hall.

Rory, B. (2003). Project management-planning, and control techniques. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons.

Wysocki and et al. (2000). Effective project management. New York: John Wiley &Sons Inc.


Course Title: Application of Research Methodology

Course No.: MARDS 565

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                      Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Second                                                                          Total Period: 48

Level: MA


Course Objectives

The general objectives of this course are to impart knowledge and level of understanding of social statistics with their application and to make students familiar with research techniques and tools in social sciences. Specifically, this course is designed to enhance knowledge and understanding of simple statistical analysis about central tendency and dispersion, correlation and regression, probability distribution and sampling techniques.

Course Contents                                                                                                                          LH


Unit: I  Measurement of Inequality (3)

  • Review of measure of central tendency and dispersion
  • Lorenz curve
  • Gini coefficient

Unit: II Correlation and Regression Analysis (9)

  • Simple correlation (Pearson’s), rank correlation (Spearmann’s)
  • Partial and multiple correlation (up to 3 variables)
  • Simple regression analysis
  • Multiple regression analysis (up to 3 variables)
  • Dummy variables as regression

Unit:III  Probability and probability distribution  (14)

  • Definition of probability
  • Addition and Multiplication laws of probability
  • Conditional probability (concept only)
  • Probability distribution
  • Mathematical expectation
  • Theoretical probability distribution: Binomial and Normal distribution

Unit: IV Sampling Theory (4)

  • Concept of sampling, sampling and non sampling errors
  • Types of sampling : Probability (sampling random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, multistage sampling )
  • Non Probability (convenience, quota, judgment, purposive, snowball)
  • Sample size
  • Sampling distribution of means and proportions

Unit: IV Estimation and hypothesis testing (14)

  • Point and interval estimation
  • Concept of hypothesis testing and its procedure
  • One tailed and two tailed tests
  • Level of significance
  • Parametric tests: z-test, t-test, F-test(one way Anova)
  • Nonparametric tests: –chi-square(χ²) test, Kruskall- Wallice H test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test

Unit: VI  Introduction of Geographical Information system (GIS) and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (4)


Note: Practical problems related to social data should be done in computer lab by using Excel and SPSS programs



Anand, S. (2000). The Measurement of Income Inequality, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Baskota, S. (2006). Statistical Methods for Rural Development. Kathmandu: New Hira Books Enterprises.

Burrough, P.A. (1986) Principles of Geographical Information Systems for Land Resource Assessment, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Chou, Y. (1969). Statitical Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Cochran, W.J. (1977). Sampling Techniques. New York: Wiley.

Croxton, F.E. Cowden D.J., and Klein, S. (1988). Applied General Statistics. New Delhi: Prentice – Hall of India Limited.

Doby, J.T. (1967). An introduction to social research. New York: Appleton

Dooley, D. (1997). Social Research methods. New Delhi: Prentice – Hall of India Private Limited.

Freund, J.E. (1984). Modern Elementary Statistics. New Jersey: Prentice – Hall Inc.

Freund, J.E. and Frank J. Williams (1959). Modern Business Statistics. Eaglewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall Inc.

Goon, A.M., Gupta M.K. and Gupta B.D. (1965). Fundamentals of Statistics. (Volumes One and Two) Calcutta: The World Press Private Limited.

Gupta, S. (1993). Research Methodology and statistical Techinques. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications.

Gupta S.P. (1987). Statistical Methods. S. Chand and sons., New Delhi.

Kanel, N.R. (1993). Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient- Conceptual Considerations. The Economic Journal of Nepal, Vol. 16 No.4 (October-December 1993), pp.221-230.(Issue No.64).

Kanel, N.R. (1995). Gini Coefficient and Kanel’s Reduction. The Economic Journal of Nepal, Vol. 18 No.4 (October-December 1995), pp.173-185.(Issue No. 72).

Lipsehutz, S. (1981). Theory and Problems in Probability, SI (Metric Edition). Singapore: McGraw-Hill, Schaum’s Outline Series.

Michalak, W.Z. (1993), GIS in Land Use Change Analysis: Integration of Remotely sensed Data into GIS. Applied Geography volume 13.

Poudel, K.P. (2001) Mountain Environment and GIS, Models and Applications, Kathmandu: Continental Research Forum, p. 10


Sen, A. (1981). On Economic Inequality. London: Oxford University Press.


Spiegel, M.R. (2002). Statistics (Third Edition). New York: McGraw Hill, Schaum’s outline series.

Spiegel, M.R. Schiller, J., and Srinivasan, R. (2004). Probability and Statistics (Second Edition). New Delhi: McGraw Hill.

Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics, An Introductory Analysis. New York: Harper and Row.