MA Third Semester

Rural Technology and Energy

Course No.: MRDS 571

Nature of the Course: Theory and Practice                                       Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                                    Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Third                                                                                 Total Period: 48

Level: MA


Course objective

This course intends to expose the students with the knowledge of the indigenous rural resources with reference to the traditional rural technology and generation and consumption of the energy structure of the country. The course will provide the contemporary issues of local natural resources and its development prospects by promoting the research, development, demonstration and deployment of upgraded traditional rural technologies in conjunction of clean renewable energy technology applications in the country. After the completion of the academic course the students will be able to undertake the plan, programs and the implementation of the development approaches with the socio-economic and techno-economic interventions and through the mobilization of rural technologies and rural energy technologies in the country.

Course Contents                                                                                                         LH

Unit I: Introduction to Rural Technology                                                                (12)

1.1 Role of rural technology in rural development.

1.2 Assessment of rural resources and the traditional technology.

1.3 Scope and limitations of the traditional / indigenous rural technologies in terms of productivity and the service delivery.

1.4 Need to upgrade the traditional rural technology to fulfill the rural development goal.

Unit II: Technology and Rural Enterprises in Nepal                                                (12)

2.1 Energy, environmental and economic impacts assessment of the rural technology based enterprise in Nepal.

2.2 Role of handicraft enterprises in the rural development of Nepal.

2.3 Rural urban barrier of natural resources, energy and technological implications.

2.4 Role and responsibility of the Cottage and Village Industries in Nepal.

Unit III Energy and Development in Nepal                                                               (10)

3.1 Energy resources identification, development and application.

3.2 National energy generation and consumption scenario of Nepal.

3.3 Specified case study of the rural resource and rural energy application in Nepal.

Unit IV: Renewable Energy in Nepal                                                                                    (14)

4.1 Renewable energy in rural development.

4.2 Renewable energy technology (RET) for rural development in Nepal.

4.3 Biomass Resources based RETs in Nepal.

4.4 Physical Resources based RETs in Nepal.

4.5 Prospects and Potentials of CDM application in the rural sector adopting the selective RETs.


AEPC, RETs Publications.

AEPC/ESAP/ Biomass Energy Support Program (2012). Celebrating 500,000 + ICS, Ministry of Environment, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

AEPC/NRREP/ MoSTE, (2013). Baseline of NRREP Result Areas Linked with National Development Indicators, Lalitpur, Nepal.

AEPC/NRREP/MoSTE. (2013). Baseline of Renewable Energy Technology Installation in Nepal, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Energy Synopsis Report. (2010).WECS, GoN, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Gajurel, C.L.  (1998).  Traditional Crafts of Nepal and Japan, Kathmandu, Nepal.

ICIMOD. Publications on the Natural Resources and Renewable Energy technologies.

Practical Action, Nepal, Publications on Rural Resources and the Rural Technologies.

RETRUD (1998, 2003, 2008).  Proceeding Reports, published by CES/IOE, T.U., Nepal.

Singh, R. B. (2002). National Workshop in Nepal (Several papers) 15-18 March 2002, UNESCO/CES/TU, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Singh, R. B. (2012). Climate and Energy Structure of Nepal, Regional Environmental Issues; Water and Disaster management. Kathmandu. CSAS / KAS

Singh, R. B. Urja Ki Jaibic Urjako Bikas, URJA NEPAL, Year 3, No. 1, kartic-mangshir (2067).

Singh, R. B. (2006). Traditional Biomass Fuel System in Nepal and the Status of Domestic End Use Devices the traditional and Improved Cook Stoves, Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies, Vol.,3, No. 1, CDRU, T.U., Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Rural Finance

Course No.:  MRDS 572

Nature of the Course: Theory and Practice                                          Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                                       Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Third                                                                                    Total Period: 48

Level: MA


Course objectives

This course aims to enhance the capacity of the students in rural finance with the knowledge of resource mobilization for rural development initiatives. It will help them to analyze the public finance, financial statements, role of financial institutions; and budget formulation process of the local bodies for the purpose of rural development.


Course Contents                                                                                                               LH           

Unit I: Rural Finance                                                                                                             (10)

         1.1      Concept and Definition of Rural Finance.

1.2      Capital Requirement and Financial Resources for Rural Areas.

1.3      Sources of Rural Finance: Institutional and Non-Institutional.

1.4      Concept and Role of Micro Finance.

1.5      Concept and Role of Cooperatives.

Unit II: Public Finance                                                                                                           (8)

2.1      Concept and Definition.

2.2      Difference between Public and Private Finance.

2.3      Scope and Areas of Public Finance.

2.4      Sources of Public Revenue.

Unit III: Financial Management Systems                                                                        (12)

3.1      Concept and Function of Financial Management.

3.2      Budget Management and Planning.

3.3      Revenue Collection and Resource Mobilization.

Unit IV: Financial Practices of VDC and DDC in Nepal                                                (10)

4.1      Plan formulation of VDC and DDC.

4.2      People’s Participation.

4.3      Financial Allocation Mechanism.

Unit V: Financial Institutions                                                                                           (8)

5.1      Role of different Financial Institutions in Rural Development

5.1.1      Nepal Rastra Bank.

5.1.2      Agriculture Development Bank, Nepal.

5.1.2      Gramin Bikas Bank.

5.2      Concept of Financial Statements and Auditing.



ADB/Nepal (2003). Rural Finance in Nepal. Kathmandu: ADB/Nepal.

ADB/Nepal (2005) Agriculture Credit Kathmandu: ADB/Nepal.

Agrawal, G. R. (2000). Project Management in Nepal.  Kathmandu: M K Publishers & Distributors.

Bhatia, H.L. (2012). Public Finance. Vikas Publishing House Ltd., India.

Byerlee, D., & Jackson, C. (2005). Agriculture, Rural Development and pro-poor Growth. Washington DC: World Bank.

Dahal, R.K., Political Economy of Nepal, Kathmandu.

Fernanado, N. A. (2008). Rural Development Outcomes and Drivers. Maniala: Asian Development Bank.

GFMECD.  (2005). Services for Rural Development Sector Project, Knowledge Systems in Rural Areas. Germany: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Hussi, P., Murphy, J., Linberg, O., & Brennemen, L. (1993). The Development Cooperatives and Other Rural Organizations. Washington DC: World Bank.

Hyun, H. Son (2008). Conditional Cash Transfer Programs. Manila: Asian Development Bank.

James, C., & Van, H. (1999). Financial Management and Policy. Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Ltd.

Kunwar, K.B. (2003). The Himalayan Poverty: Prosperity through Rural Development. Kathmandu: Meena Prakashan.

Meyer, R., & Geetha, N. (2000).  Rural Financial Markets in Asia. Hong Kong: University Press.

Mihaly, E. B. (1965). Foreign Aid and Politics in Nepal. Landon: Oxford  University Press.

MoF(2014). Economic Survey 2013/14. Kathmandu: Ministry of Finance.(Current Publication)

MoLJ – Law Books Management Board (1998). Local Self-Governance Act. Kathmandu: Ministry of Law and Justice, Law Books Management Board.

Nepal Rastra Bank Publications

NPC (various years). Five Year Plans and Interim Plans, Kathmandu: National Planning Commission.

Rosen, H.S. and Gayer, T. (2012). Public Finance. Mcgraw Hill Education Private Ltd., India.

Shenggen, F. (2005). Investment or Subsidies. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

Shrestha, M. (2009). Community Development. Kathmandu: Quest Publication.

Warren, F. L., Boehlje, M. D., Nelson, A. G. & Murray, W. G. (1988). Agricultural Finance. Iowa: Iowa State University Press.

Weitz, R. (1975). Integrated Rural Development: The Rehovot Approach. Israel: Development Study Centre, Rehovot.

World Bank (2005). Agricultural Growth for the Poor: An Agenda for Development. Washington DC: World Bank.

Zeller, M. (2000). Socio-Economic of Rural Development. Germany: Institute for Rurale Entwicklung.

Tourism for Rural Development

Course No.:  MRDS 573

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                           Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                                    Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Third                                                                                 Total Period: 48

Level: MA


Course objectives

The general objective of this course is to provide understanding of the concept, issues, policies and practices of tourism with special references of Nepal. It will be helpful to know, analyze and impart the tourism related knowledge in practical basis. Most specifically it will provide the knowledge about rural tourism relating with rural development of Nepal.

Course Contents                                                                                                         LH


Unit- 1: Introduction of Tourism                                                                               (15)

  • Concept, meaning, components and types of tourism.
  • Rural tourism; concept, meaning, issues, major actors and stakeholders, false assumption in rural tourism.
  • Rural tourism production (use of rural resources, rural services).
  • Globalization, rural tourism and community power.
  • Impact of rural tourism (with special reference of Nepal).
  • Sustainability of rural tourism.

Unit – 2: Rural Tourism policy and Planning                                                                        (10)

  • Tourism policy of Nepal; more specifically rural tourism policy, process of rural tourism policy formulation.
  • Rural tourism planning, need of rural tourism planning, steps and elements of rural tourism planning.
  • SWOT analysis For rural tourism planning.




Unit-3: Rural Tourism Marketing                                                                             (8)

3.1Concept of rural tourism marketing, issues of rural tourism marketing, marketing     mix, market segmentation.

  • Considering factors for rural tourism marketing.

3.3 Role of research and development in rural tourism marketing.

Unit- 4: Forms of Tourism                                                                                         (15)

  • Agro tourism, critical success factors of agro tourism, prospects and challenges of agro tourism, revitalization of rural economy through agro tourism.
  • Eco tourism, principles, issues and practices special references with Nepal.
  • Religious tourism, Cultural tourism.
  • Alternative forms of tourism.


Bhatiya, A. K. (2010).Tourism development principles and practices. New Delhi: Sterling  publishers.

George, E.W., Mair, H. & Reid, D. G.(2009). Rural tourism development localism and cultural Change.Toronto: Channel View Publication.

Goeldner, C.R & Ritchie, J. R. (2007). Tourism principles, practices, philosophies. New Delhi:  Wiely India.

Hall, D., Kirkpatrick, I. & Mitchell, M. (ed) (2005). Rural tourism and sustainable business. Canada: Channel view Publications.

Kharel, S. (2014). Rural tourism in Nepal. Kathmandu: Quest Publication.

Kunwar,  R. R. (2010).Tourists and tourism science and industry interface. Kathmandu: Modern Printing Press.

Pradhanang, S. B. (2009). Village the new tourist destination of Nepal. Kathmandu: Adroid  Publisher.

Upadhyay,  R. P. (2008). Readings in rural tourism. Kathmandu: Sunlight Publication





Gender and Development

Course No.: MRDS 574

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                           Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                                    Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Third                                                                                 Total Period: 48

Level: MA


Course objectives

The aim and objectives of this course is to familiarize students with the concept of gender and gender issues; to enhance  student’s capacity to analyze development discourse from gender perspective and familiarize them to efforts in mainstreaming gender concerns in national development; to develop student’s skill to analyze existing gender gaps and structural inequalities in Nepal and to expose students with the methods and tools of research from gender perspective

Course Contents                                                                                                         LH


Unit I Concepts and Introduction                                                                              (10)

  • Sex and gender.
  • Masculinity and Femininity.

1.3 Sex-gender system – patriarchy as a social system.

1.4 Gender as social construction (intersectionality of gender- caste, class, and   region).

1.5   Gender roles, relations and gender division of labor.

1.6   Gender needs and gender interest (Practical needs and gender interest).


Unit II   Gender Analysis in Development Discourse and Practice              (15)     

2.1.  Critique of development Policy   approaches.

2.2. WID, WAD, GAD (Timing, underlying theories and assumptions, focus on men and women’s role, advocacy).

2.3 Mainstreaming gender concerns in national development (theoretical base and national efforts.

Unit III   Gender gap: Impediments to Development                                               (15)

3.1 Gender gap: analysis (GDI, GEM, and GIM )

3.2 International instruments (CEDAW and BPFA)

3.3 Gender related poverty measuring indicators and unit of analysis.

3.4 Poverty reduction strategies and alleviation approaches in the latest plan.

Unit IV   Gender in Development Research                                                              (8)

  1. 1. Feminist interjection to development research.
  2. 2. Methods and instruments of gender and development research: emphasis on participatory, qualitative, process oriented and action research.
  3. 3. Tools to analyze gender in development programs.



Acharya,  M. (2007 updated). Gender equality and empowerment of women. Kathmandu: UNFPA.

Acharya, M. (2003).  Efforts at promotion of women in Nepal. Kathmandu: Tanka Prasad Acharya Memorial Foundation, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES).

Acharya, M. (2001). Women and Economy: The Key Issues. In Manandhar, L. & Bhattachan, K. (Eds.), Gender and Democracy in Nepal. Kathmandu: Central Department of Home Science & Women’s Studies Program, Tribhuvan University and FES.

Bhadra, C. (2007). International Labour Migration of Nepalese Women: The Impact of Their Remittances on Poverty Reduction. September 2007. Bangkok: UN/ESCAP/ARTNeT.

Bhadra, C. (2005). Rationale of Gender Mainstreaming and Efforts Made in Nepal. Hamro Sansar (A Journal of Women’s Studies) Issue 4., April 2005.

Bhadra, C. (2000). Gender and Development: Global Debate to Nepal’s Development Agenda. Contributions to Nepalese Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2.

Bhadra, C. (2002). “Poverty, Gender and Intra-Household Resource Distribution: Implication on Human Resources Development”, Hamro Sansar (A world of our own), A Journal of Women’s Studies, Issue 1, March 2002.

Boserup, E. (1970). Women’s role in economic development. New York: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.

Kabeer. Naila, Reversed Realities

K.Naila, & R. Subramanian (eds.) (1999).  Institutions and Outcomes, Kali for Women. New Delhi

Moser, Caroline O.N. (1995). “ Women, gender and urban development policy”, Third World Planning Review, 17(2): 223-235

Moser, C. O. N. (1991). “Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic Need”. In R. Grant & Newland, K. (Eds.), Gender and International Relations. Buckingham.

Shrestha, M. (2008). Women and development in Nepal. Kathmandu: First Sigma Carts, Printing and Logistics.

Rural Livelihood and Climate Change Adaptation

Course No.:  MRDS 575

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                           Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                                    Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Third                                                                                 Total Period: 48


Course objectives

This course aims to enable students to conceptualize the basic ideas, approaches and strategies of rural livelihood. More basically, the course intends to analyze the effect of climate change in rural livelihood through the deep understanding of its impact on various resources, climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. After the completion of the course, students are expected to use their knowledge in the field of climate change and livelihood issues of rural development.

Course Contents                                                                                                                     LH

Unit I Introduction to Rural Livelihood                                                                    (17)

  • Rural livelihood: Concept, components and assets.
  • Relationship between food security and livelihood.
  • Rural livelihood system framework and its importance in rural development.
  • Relationship between Gender and rural livelihood (status, role, division of labor, access and control over resources).
  • Various approaches of Sustainable Livelihood Framework (DFID,WWF,,CARE and UNDP).

Unit II. Livelihood in Nepal                                                                                                   (7)

2.1  Regional differences and livelihood diversification

2.2 Rural livelihood strategies adaptation in Nepal (Case studies of various livelihood strategies adopted by different indigenous groups  on ecological region of Nepal.

Unit III Climate change                                                                                                         (7)

  • Climate change: concept and factors affecting climate change.
  • Climate change scenario (Global and national) .

Unit IV Climate Change Impact and Mitigation Measures                          (17)

Impact of climate change and mitigation measures on:

  • Water resources
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Natural disaster
  • Health


Adhikari, J. (2008). Changing livelihoods,essays on Nepal’s development since 1990. Kathmandu: Martin Chautari.

Adhikari, S. (2006). Internally displaced persons: An assessment of social situation and development planning and implications. An unpublished Master’s Thesis submitted to Central Department of Rural Development, TU.

Angelsen, A., Larsen, H. O., Lund, J. F., Smith-Hall, C., & Wunder, S. (2011). Measuring livelihoods and environmental dependence; methods for research and field work. London: Earthscan.

Baumgartner, R. & Hoegger, R. (Eds). (2004). In search of sustainable livelihoods systems: managing resources and changes. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

CARE. (2002). Household Livelihood Security Framework. Atlanta: CARE

Carter T.R., M.L. Parry, H. Harasawa, & S. Nishioka (eds). 1994. IPCC Technical

Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change  Impacts and Adaptations. Department of

Geography, University College, London. U.K. and Centre for Global Environment

Research, National  Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan.

Department  of  International Development (2002). Sustainable  livelihood guidance sheets. London: DFID.

.IPPC. ( 1995). Impacts, Adaptations and mitigation of climate change: Scientific-Technical analyses contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.  R.T. Watson, M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H.Moss (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom

IUCN, the World Conservation Union’s online book Change –adaptation of water resources management to climate, retrieved on 2009-12-18

Jonsson, U. & Daniel T. (1991).  Household Food Security and Nutrition: A Conceptual Analysis.  Mimeo. New York: UNICEF

Pandey, T. R. (2003). Household, community, and the state; a study of models of livelihoods in the hills and tarai viallages of western Nepal. An unpublished PhD dissertation submitted to Department of Sociology, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi.

Rajbanshi, A. (2009). Sustainable  livelihood pattern of marginal communities in a peri-urban areas, a case study of Bajrayogini Village, Kathmandu. An unpublished PhD dissertation submitted to Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, TU.

Upreti, B.R. & Boker, U.M. (20100 Livelihood security and social conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR).