MA Second Semester

Course Title: Community Development in Nepal

Course No.: MRD 561

Nature of the Course: Theory and Practical                                    Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                        Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Second                                                                             Total Period: 48

Level: MA

 

Course Objective

This course aims to enable students to understand concept, process and strategies associated with community development in developing countries like Nepal. After completion of this course students can apply community development techniques and tools in the real field.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit II: Foundation                                                                                                               16

2.1 Definitions and Imperatives of Community Development

2.2 Principles and Dimensions of Community Development

2.3 Major Theories of Community Development

2.4 Asset-Based Community Development

2.5 Social Capital and Community Building

2.6 Community Development Practice

Unit II: Cross-Cutting Issues in Community Development                                               10

2.1 Strategic Planning

2.2 Workforce Training

2.3 Financial Institutions

2.4 Community based Organizations

2.5 Community Leadership Development

Unit III: Measuring Community Development                                                                  10

3.1 Introduction to Community Wellbeing

3.2 Community Development Assessments

3.3 Community Builder’s Approach: Theory of Change

3.4 Methods for Community Development Progress (Overview)

Unit IV: Community Based Organizations in Nepal                                                         12

4.1 History of Community Development

4.2 Pre-Unification, Unification and Rana Period

4.3 Planned Development Period (2007-2018)

4.4 Panchyat Period

4.5 After 1991- BOVO, PDDP, LGP, DLGSP

4.2 Development of Community – based Organizations in Nepal (CBOs): Indigenous and induced

References

Biddle, William W. (1965). The Community development process. New Delhi: Amerind Publishing Company Ltd.

Blair, Robert (2004). Public participation & community development: The role of strategic planning. Public Administrative Quarterly, 28(1/2), 102-147.

Chekki, Dan A. (1979). Community: Theory and method of planned change. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Connell, J. P. and Kubisch, A. C. (1998). Applying a theory of change approach to the evaluation of comprehensive community initiatives: progress, prospects, and problems. New approaches to evaluating community initiatives, 2(15-44). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/af41/0504d2cfe5a812808c16d0a4418784d9da64.pdf?_ga=2.180138208.557151032.1530336188-893317387.1530336188

Denhardt, Robert, B. (1985). Strategic planning in state and local government. State & Local Government Review, 17(1), 174-179.

Dore, Ronald & Zoe Mars. (Eds.). (1981). Community development. London: Croom Helm, UNESCO Paris.

Gilchrist, Alison (2009). The well-connected community: A networking approach to community development (Second edition). UK: The Policy Press

Haines, Anna (2009). Asset-based community development. In Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (Eds.), Introduction to community development (pp. 38-48). UK: Routledge.

Harmston, Flayd K. (1983). The Community as an Eco-System. The Iowa State University Press/Ames, USA.

Hustedde, Ronald J. (2009). Seven theories for seven community developers. In Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (Eds.), Introduction to community development (pp. 20-37). UK: Routledge

Ife, Jim (2009). Definitions and imperatives of community development. Human rights from below: Achieving rights through community development (pp 9-28). UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ife, Jim (2009). Principles and dimensions of community development. Human rights from below: Achieving rights through community development (pp 29-68). UK: Cambridge University Press.

Kirk, Philip and Anna Marie Shutte (2004). Community leadership development. Community Development Journal, 39(3), 234-251.

Kolzow, David R. (2009). Developing community leadership skill. In Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (Eds.), Introduction to community development (pp. 119-132). UK: Routledge.

 

Korten, David C. (1980). Community organization and rural development: A Learning Process Approach.

Lee, Seung Jong, Yunji Kim & Rhonda Phillips (2015). In Seung Jong Lee, Yunji Kim & Rhonda Phillips (Eds.), Community wellbeing and community development: Conceptions and applications (pp. 9-24). Switzerland: Springer

Mattessich, Paul W (2009). Social capital and community building. In Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (Eds.), Introduction to community development (pp. 49-57). UK: Routledge.

NPC – Various Plan Documents

Okubo, Derek (2009). Community visioning and strategic planning. In Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (Eds.), Introduction to community development (pp. 77-103). UK: Routledge.

Pawar, Manohar (2014). Social and Community Development Practice (pp. 3-63). India: SAGE publications

Phillips, Rhonda & Robert H. Pittman (2009). A framework for community and economic development. In Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (Eds.), Introduction to community development (pp. 3-19). UK: Routledge.

Phillips, Rhonda & Robert H. Pittman (2009). Measuring progress: Community indicators, best practices and benchmarking. In Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (Eds.), Introduction to community development (pp. 284-296). UK: Routledge.

Purcell, Rod (2012). Community development and everyday life. Community Development Journal, 47(2), 266-281.

Pyakuryal, Kailash. (1990). Community development and challenges and prospects, Kathmandu: REDD BARNA.

Richard Peer & Elaine Harswick (2010). Theories of development contentions, argument alternatives. India, Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

Shrestha, Mangala (2009). Community development. Kathmandu: Question Publication.

Simon, During (2008). The cultural studies reader. London and New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.

Sue Kilpatrick, Sue, John Field & Ian Falk (2003). Social Capital: An Analytical Tool for Exploring Lifelong Learning and Community Development. British Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 417-433.

Vincent II, John W. (2009). Community development assessment. In Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (Eds.), Introduction to community development (pp. 133-154). UK: Routledge.

Vincent II, John W. (2009). Community development practices. In Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (Eds.), Introduction to community development (pp. 58-74). UK: Routledge.

West, Monieca (2009). Establishing community-based organizations. In Rhonda Phillips and Robert H. Pittman (Eds.), Introduction to community development (pp. 104-118). UK: Routledge.

Johnson, Oliver, Hannah Wanjiru, Cassilde Muhoza, Fiona Lambe, Marie Jürisoo, Wathanyu Amatayakul and Audrey Chenevoy
(2015). From theory to practice of change: Lessons from SNVʹs improved cookstoves and fuel projects in Cambodia, Kenya, Nepal and Rwanda.Stockholm Environment Institute, Working Paper 2015-09.

Taplin, Dana H., Heléne Clark, Eoin Collins, and David C. Colby (2013). A Series of Papers to Support Development of Theories of Change Based on Practice in the Field. New York(NY). Actknowledge (www.actknowledge.org)

 

Course Title: Policy, Strategy, and Planning in Development

Course No.: MRD 562

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                          Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                        Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Second                                                                             Total Period: 48

 

Course Objectives

This course basically aims to acquaint students to analyze planning process for rural development. Students will also be able to examine development policies and strategies implemented in developing countries like Nepal. After completion of this course, it is expected that students can formulate plan and policies for local bodies in Nepal.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit I: Planning for Development                                                                                       13

1.1 The structure and debates of planning theory.

1.2 Procedural Theory of Planning (Synoptic Rationality, Incremental Planning, Advocacy Planning)

1.3 Pre-requisite of successful planning.

1.4 Approaches of plan formulation.

1.5 Comparative study on planning in capitalistic, socialistic and mixed economies.

1.6 Framework of strategic plan, Tactical plan and operational plan.

1.7 Critical analysis of current periodic development plan of Nepal.

Unit III: Policy Formulation for Development                                                                   11

2.1 The evolution of the policy sciences.

2.2 Rhetoric in Policy Making: Between Logos, Ethos, and Pathos.

2.3 Model of policy formulation.

2.4 Stages of policy cycle.

2.5 Imperativeness and goals of R.D. policy

2.6 Factors and tools of policy appraisal.

Unit III: Strategies and Instrument for Rural Development                                            12

3.1 The strategy paradigm

3.2 Strategy formulation process

3.3 Constraints on the choice of strategy

3.4 Issues and Choice of policy instrument

3.5 Process of Rural Transformation and its major intervention area for development.

3.6 Pros and cons of target setting in development process.

Unit IV: Policy and Program in Nepal                                                                                12

4.1 Poverty alleviation policies and approaches in Nepal

4.2 Land reform policies and program in Nepal.

4.3 Rural development policy and program in Nepal

4.4 Financial management policy and strategy of Rural Municipality (source, authority, effectiveness)

4.5 Millennium and Sustainable Development Goals (MDGs, SDGs)

4.6 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)

 References

Bista, S. K. (2000). Rural development in Nepal: An alternative strategy. Kathmandu: Udaya Books.

Blackely, E.J. & Ted, K.B.(2003). Planning Local Economic Development: Theory & Practice. New Delhi:Vistaar publication.

Campbell, Scott and Susan S. Fainstein, eds. 1996. Readings in Planning Theory. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

CBS (2010/11). Nepal Living Standard Survey III. Kathmandu: CBS.

Chambers, R. (1989). Rural development: Putting the last first. London: Longman Publishers

Devi, L. (1997). Strategic planning for rural development. New Delhi: Anmol Publications

Handbook of Public Policy Analysis Theory, Politics, and Methods Edited by Frank Fischer Rutgers Gerald J. Miller Mara S. Sidney CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group.

Jain, S.C. (1985). Rural Development: Institutions and strategies. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

Jhingan, M.L. (2007). The economics of development planning. Delhi: Vrinda Publications.

Khadka, G. (2066). Rural Development: Policy and strategy. Kritipur: Sunlight publication.

Lekhi, R.K. (2008). Economic Development and Planning. New Delhi: Kalyani Publisher.

Mathema, K. R. B. (2008). Economics of Development. Kirtipur: New Hira Books Enterprises.

Mathema, K.B. (2001). Strategies for rural development in Nepal: Some observations, some thoughts. Kathmandu.

Ministry of Finance (M0F) National Budget of Nepal(latest)

Ministry of Finance (MoF). Economic Survey (latest)

NPC (2011) Thirteenth Plan (2070/2071-2072/2073). Kathmandu: NPC

NPC/ADB (2007). Regional Development Strategy: main text and annexes. Kathmandu: NPC.

Jack Rabin, F. Robert Munzenrider and Sherrie M. Bartell. Principles and Practices of Public Administration

Reejal, P.R. (2002). Fundamental of Public Policy Analysis (2nd  Ed.) Kathmandu: Prithvi Prakashan

References

Bista, S. K. (2000). Rural development in Nepal: An alternative strategy. Kathmandu: Udaya Books.

Blackely, E.J. & Ted, K.B. (2003). Planning Local Economic Development: Theory & Practice. New Delhi: Vistaar publication.

CBS (2010/11). Nepal Living Standard Survey III. Kathmandu: CBS.

Chambers, R. (1989). Rural development: Putting the last first. London: Longman Publishers

Devi, L. (1997). Strategic planning for rural development. New Delhi: Anmol Publications

Jain, S.C. (1985). Rural Development: Institutions and strategies. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

Jhingan, M.L. (2007). The economics of development planning. Delhi: Vrinda Publications.

Lekhi, R.K. (2008). Economic Development and Planning. New Delhi: Kalyani Publisher.

Mathema, K. R. B. (2008). Economics of Development. Kirtipur: New Hira Books Enterprises.

Mathema, K.B. (2001). Strategies for rural development in Nepal: Some observations, some thoughts. Kathmandu.

Ministry of Finance (M0F) National Budget of Nepal(latest)

Ministry of Finance (MoF). Economic Survey (latest)

NPC (2011) Thirteenth Plan( 2070/2071-2072/2073). Kathmandu: NPC

NPC/ ADB(2007A). Regional Development Strategy: main text and annexes. Kathmandu: The author.

Pradhan, P.K. (2012). Urban Rural Relations and Rural Development in Developing World. Kathmandu: Quest Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Reejal, P.R. (2002). Fundamental of Public Policy Analysis (2nd  ed.) Kathmandu: Prithvi Prakashan

Sapru, R.K. (2004). Public Policy: Formulation, Implementation and Evaluation (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Sterling Publication

Seddon, D.(1998). Nepal: A State of Poverty. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Shakya, R. K. (2013). Planning Experiences in Nepal. Kathmandu. NA

Singh, K. (2009). Rural development; Principles, policies and management (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Todaro, M.P & Smith, S.C. (2010). Economic development (10th edition). Delhi: Pearson Education

 

Course Title: Rural Urban Linkage

Course No.:  MRD 563

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                          Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                        Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Second                                                                             Total Period: 48

Level: MA

 

Course Objectives

The general objectives of the course are to acquaint the students with advance knowledge of rural urban linkage focusing on settlement system, to enable the students understanding and applying basic theoretical framework in rural/regional development plan and policies, to acquaint the students with knowledge of Technique and measure of rural urban relation and use them for rural development planning, to make students able to review the policy and programmes applied in Nepal to strengthen rural urban linkage.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit I: Conceptual Understanding of Rural Urban Linkage                                           12

1.1 Introduction to rural urban linkage

1.2 Conceptual Issues in rural urban linkage

1.3 Factors for evolution of early settlement

1.4 Historical development and change of settlement system in Nepal

1.5 Settlement pattern and ecological region of Nepal

1.6 Planning implication of dispersed and scattered settlement

1.7 Constraints of Rural Urban Linkage

Unit II: Theoretical Framework      for Rural Urban Linkage                                         16

2.1 Central Place Theory (Christaller)

2.2 Gateway Model

2.3 Urban Land Use Model (Von Thunen)

2.4 Spatial diffusion of innovation model (T. Hagerstrand)

2.5 Core-Periphery linkage model

2.6 Spatial development models (Growth Pole/Center, Aggropolitan Model, Service Center Approach, Market Center Approach)

Unit III: Measuring Rural Urban Linkage                                                                        12

3.1 Urban Center Measure – Identification or urban/growth centers; Density and distribution measures; Centrality measures (Scalogram, infrastructure index, centrality Index, composite weighted index)

3.2 Hinterland Measure – Expected (natural, administrative and graphic- thiessen polygon and breaking point theory); Actual – origin and destination survey and mapping.

3.3 Urban Rural Linkage Measures – Spatial Interaction model; Flow model; Facility location measures; Relative measures of service accessibility.

Unit IV: Rural Urban Linkage Planning, Policy and Program                                       8

4.1 Integrated rural urban linkage planning

4.2 Strategies to rural urban integrated development

4.3 Rural urban Linkage policy developments in Nepal

4.4 Program related to rural urban linkage: Past and Present such as RUPP, PPPUE, MEDEP, PAF

References

Potter, R.B, and Unwin, T. (1990). The Geography of Urban Rural Interaction in Developing Countries, Routledge.

Tacoli, C. (2002). Changing rural-urban interactions in sub-Saharan Africa and their impact on livelihoods: a summary, Rural-urban working paper 7, IIED, London.

Lynch, K. (2004). Rural Urban Interaction in the Developing World. Taylor & Francis, Science. Routledge Perspective on Development. London: Routledge.

Tacoli, C. (2006). The Earthscan Reader in Rural Urban Linkages, Earthscan, London: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).

Pradhan P.K and Routary, J. K. (1992). Market Center and Rural Development: A Study in Chitwan District, Nepal. Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology

ESCAP (1979). Guideline for Rural Central Planning. New York: Economic and Social Commission on Asia and the Pacific.

Pradhan P.K. (2012). Urban Rural Relations and Rural Development in Developing World. Kathmandu: Quest Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Todaro, M. P. (1969). A Model of Labor Migration and Urban Unemployment in Less Developed Countries. The American Economic Review, Vol. 59 (1) 138-148.

 

Course Title: Project Management

Course No.: MRDS 564

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                          Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                        Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Second                                                                             Total Period: 48

Level: MA

 

Course Objectives

The objective of this course is to acquaint the students with the basic idea of rural project management. The course aims at developing the skills in students of project monitoring and evaluation, linking project design and its results and monitoring and evaluation of development projects in the Nepalese context.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit 1. Introduction to Project Management                                                                     8

1.1 Concept and characteristics of project and project management

1.2 Project classification

1.3 Inter-relation between plan, program, project and activities

1.4 Project cycle

1.5 Skill, role and responsibilities of a project manager

Unit 2. Project Identification, Formulation, Appraisal and Implementation                  16

2.1 Project Identification- Preliminary study

2.1.1 Situation Analysis

2.2 Project Formulation-Comprehensive study, analysis and planning

2.2.1 Feasibility Study

2.2.2 Stakeholder Analysis, Problem Tree and Objective Analysis, Strategy Analysis, SWOT Analysis

2.2.3 Logical Framework, Work Plan Scheduling, Budget Scheduling and project proposal

2.3 Project Appraisal

Criteria, Cost benefit Analysis

2.4 Project Implementation

2.4.1 Ensuring effective operations

2.4.2 Capacity building of local stakeholders

2.4.3 Implementing a project

 

Unit III: Monitoring and Evaluation                                                                                   16

3.1 Concept, difference, types and objectives, and basis of M&E

3.2 Concept and basics of Result based M&E

3.3 Results based monitoring

Typologies, Bases, Provisions and methods

3.4 Results based evaluation

Evaluation in different phases, criteria, evaluation arrangement, methods

3.5 Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation

Objectives, Methods and Tools of Participatory M&E

3.6 Evaluation Report

3.7 Critical Reflection

Unit IV: Project Management with Reference to Nepal                                                   8

4.1 Problems and challenges in project implementation in Nepal

4.2 Requirements for successful project management

4.3 Evolution of Monitoring and Evaluation system in Nepal

4.4 Existing method and system of monitoring and evaluation in Nepal

References:

EU (2002). Project Cycle Management Handbook. European Commission.

FAO (2001). Project Cycle Management Technical Guide. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Government of Nepal (2013). National Monitoring and Evaluation Guidelines. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission.

IFAD (2002). A Guide for Project M&E: Managing for Impact in Rural Development. Rome: International Fund for Agricultural Development.

Laurence, S. John, M. Susie, T. (2011). Project Planning and Management. London: Centre for Development, Environment and Policy.

RPRLGSP (2009). MANUAL on PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT: Guidelines on Identification, Design and Implementation of Successful Local Authority Projects.

UNDP (2011). National Implementation by the Government of UNDP Supported Projects: Guidelines and Procedures. UNDP

 

Course Title: Agriculture and Development

Course No.: MRD 565

Nature of the Course: Theory and Practical                                    Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                        Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Second                                                                             Total Period: 48

Level: MA

 

Course Objectives

This course intends to enable students to have sound knowledge of the theories of agricultural development, agriculture and rural development, agriculture policy and programs, agriculture modernization and entrepreneurship development, and agriculture finance. After completing this course, the students will prepare a mini-research report on agriculture and rural development based on the field survey data.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit I: Theories of Agricultural Development                                                                   16

1.1 Historical Context of Agricultural Development

1.2 Population Pressure and Agricultural Development in Developing Countries

1.3 Schultz’s Theory of Traditional Agriculture Transformation

1.4 Jorgenson’s Dual Economy Model

1.5 Boserup’s Theory of Agrarian Change

1.6 Technology Transfer Theory on Agriculture

Unit II: Food Security and Rural Development                                                                 12

2.1 Status of Food Security

2.2 Poverty, Hunger and Malnutrition

2.3 Economic of Food Demand and Supply

2.4 Agendas for Food Security

Unit III: Agriculture Growth and Sustainability                                                               10

3.1 Integrated Farming System

3.2 Farmer Managed Irrigation System

3.3 Agriculture Cooperative and Farming

3.4 Atmospheric and Agriculture Production Trends

3.5 Threats to Sustainable Farming System

Unit IV: Agricultural Financing, Policies, Programs and Projects                                  10

4.1 Financing in Agriculture Sector

4.2 Policies related to Food Security and Food Nutrition

4.3 Agriculture Perspective Plan (APP), Agriculture Development Strategy (ADS) & Land Use Plan (LUP)

4.4 One Village One Product (OVOP) & Agriculture Super Zone (ASZ) Programs

4.5 High Mountain Agribusiness and Livelihood Improvement (HIMALI) Project

4.6 Project for Agriculture Commercialization and Trade (PACT) Project

References

Among, L. B. (1986). Adaption of New Technology and its Social Impact on Rural Courtiers in Asia: A country Study of Nepal , T. U. CEDA, Kathmandu, Nepal.

APPROSC/JMA (1995). Nepal agriculture perspective plan. Kathmandu: Agricultural Projects Services Center.

Billsborrow, Richard, E. (1987). Population Pressure and Agricultural Development in Developing Countries: A Conceptual Framework and Recent Evidence. World Development, 15(2), 183-203.

Boserup, E. (1965). Conditions of agricultural growth. New York: Aldin.

Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) (2012). National census of agriculture 2011. Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics.

Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) (2012). Poverty in Nepal 2010/11. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal.

Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) (2008). Nepal Labor Force Survey 2007-2008. Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission,

Cummings, R. W. (1990). Agricultural technology management. In R. G. Echeverria (Ed.), Methods for Diagnosing Research System Constraints and Assessing the Impact of Agricultural Research (15-30). The Hague, Netherlands; International Service for National Agricultural Research.

Department for International Development (DFID) (2012). Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets. London: DFID.

Economic Survey (2016). Unofficial Translation Economic Survey (Fiscal Year 2015/16). Government of Nepal, Ministry of Finance. Retrieved from http://www.mof.gov.np

Ghatak S. and Ingersent, K. (1984). Agriculture and economic development. New York: Select Book.

Hada, G. B. (2007). Sustainable rural development. Kathmandu: Dikshant Pustak Bhandar.

Hayami, Y. and Vernon W. R. (1985). Agricultural Ddvelopment: An international perspective. Baltimore: John Hopkins Universtiy Press.

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (2015).Building a poverty- free world; Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty in Nepal.

Keulan, H. Van (2007). Historical Context of Agricultural Development. Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low Income Countries (pp. 7-26). The Netherlands: Springer.

Lekhi, R. K. (2008). The economics of development and planning (11th ed.). New Delhi: Kalyani Publication.

Mahbub Ul Haq Human Development Center. (2003). Human development in South Asia, agriculture and rural development. New York: Oxford University Press.

McLeod Rivera, William and M. Kalim Qamar (2003). Agriculture Extension, Rural Development and The Food Security Challenge. Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

Mellor, J. W. (1966). The economics of agricultural development. Ithaca: Cornell University.

Ministry of Agriculture (2014). Twenty Years Agriculture Development Strategy (2014-34). Kathmandu: Government of Nepal

MOA (current). Statistical information on Nepalese agriculture. Kathmandu: Ministry of Agriculture.

National Agriculture Census (NAC) (2011/12). A national census report. Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics

National Planning Commission (NPC) (2016). Fourteenth three-year plan (2016/17-2018/19). Kathmandu: Government of Nepal

National Planning Commission (NPC) (2017). Nepal’s sustainable development goals, Baseline Report June 2017. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal.

OECD-FAO (2013). Agricultural outlook 2013-2022. Corrigenda OECD Publication.

Pradhan, P. K. & Pradhan, B. (2006). Environment and natural resources: Concepts, methods, planning and management. Kathmandu: Qest Publication.

Regmi, Hem Raj, and Kamal Raj, Gautam (2014). “Population and Status of Agriculture”. Population Monograph of Nepal Vol III. Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics, pp183-222.

Schultz, T.W. (1997). Transforming Traditional Agriculture (Doctoral Dissertation).

Silwal, U. K. (2003). Relationships between population growth and agricultural change in Nepal: A regional analysis. Kathmandu: Thopal Prakashan.

  1. Norton, George, Jeffrey Alwang and William A. Master (2010). Economics of Agricultural Development: World Food System and Resource Use. New York: Routledge

World Bank (2005). Agriculture Growth for the Poor: The Agenda for Development. Washington DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank

World Bank (2008). World development report. (2008). Agricultural for development. Washington DC: World Bank.