Syllabus

FIRST SEMESTER COURSES

 

Course Title: Rural Development: Theory and Discourse

Course No.: MRDS 551

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                      Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: First                                                                               Total Period: 48

  Course objectives

The general objective of this course is to acquaint students with the theories and discourses of development. The specific objectives are; to trace the root of the concept development and rural development, to analyze shift in development thinking, to analyze the mainstream and alternative development theories and discourses, to get equip with different timelines of the ideas of rural development and to critically analyze the applicability of endogenous and alternative theories of rural development in the context of Nepal. It is expected that after completion of this course students will be able to relate theory of rural development in different contexts.

Course contents                                                                                                                  LH

Chapter One: Origin of Development Concept (10)

1.1 Origin of political economy

1.2 Classical economics and development (Core values and critique)

1.3 Neo-classical economics and development (core values and critique)

1.4 Paradigm shift in development

1.5 Origin of the concept and approach: Rural development

1.6 Neo-liberalism and rural development

Chapter Two: Development Theories and Discourse (15)

2.1 Mainstream Development Theories (Modernization and Dependency)

2.2 Alternative Development Theories (Sustainable Development and Human Development)

2.3 Post-development Discourses (Arturo Escobar and W.G. Sachs)

Chapter Three: Rural Development Theories (13)

3.1 Exogenous Rural Development (Concept of growth and mode of development)

3.2 Endogenous Rural Development (Growth pattern, resource utilization and actors)

3.3 Alternative Rural Development (Social justice, Equity, self-reliance and Third Worldism)

Chapter Four: Rural Development Timeline and Approaches (10)

4.1 Rural Development timeline after 1950s

4.2 Approaches of Rural Development

4.3 Community Development

4.4 Basic Need Approach

4.5 Integrated Rural Development Approach

4.6 Right Based Approach

4.7 Rural Livelihood Approach

References:

Adhikari, S.P. (2000). Rural development in Nepal: Problems and prospects (2nd ed). Kathmandu: Sajha Prakashan

Ellis, F. and Biggs, S. (2001). Evolving themes in rural development 1950s-2000s, In Development Policy Review, 19 (4), Pp.437-448. Available at <onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-7679.00143/pdf>.

Gandhi, M.K. (1952). Rebuilding our villages. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House.

—————–(1962). Village swaraj. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House.

Ghimire, A., Upreti, B.R. & Pokhral, S. (2010). Livelihood strategies of internally displaced people in Western Nepal: Some observations (Pp. 217-239). In Bishnu Raj Upreti and Ulrike Muller-Boker (Eds.). Livelihood insecurity and social conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South.

Koirala, B.P. (1982). Democracy indispensable for  development. Kathmandu: Shushil   Koirala

Kunwar, K. B. (2010). Rural development in developing countries (2nd ed.). Kathmandu: Meena Prakashan

Margarian, A. (June-July, 2011). Endogenous Rural Development: Empowerment or Abandonment? Available at < literatur.vti.bund.de/digbib_extern/dn048906.pdf>

Mathema, K.R.B. (2001). Strategies of rural development in Nepal: Some observations some thoughts. Kathmandu: Sita Devi Mathema

Mathema, K.R.B. (2001). Strategies of rural development in Nepal: Some observations some thoughts. Kathmandu: Sita Devi Mathema.

Mikkelsen, B. (2005). Methods of development work and research: a new guide for practitioner (2nd edition). India: Sage Publications.

Peet, R and Hartwick, E. (2010). Theories of development; contentions, argument and alternatives. New Delhi: Rawat Publications

Pieterse, J.N. (2010). Development Theory (2nd edition). New Delhi: Sage Publications

Sen, A. (2005). Commodities and capabilities (8th edition). North Holland: Amsterdam.

………. (2000). Development as freedom (Indian edition). New Delhi: Oxford University    Press.

Sengupta, A; Negi, A and Basu, M. (Eds) (2007). Reflections on the right to development. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Singh, K. (2009). Rural development; Principles, policies and management (3nd ed.).  New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Todaro, M.P & Smith, S.C. (2010). Economic development (10th edition). Singapore: Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd.

UNDP (1990). Human development report, 1990. New York: UNDP.

———(2004). Nepal human development report, 2004; ‘Empowerment and poverty reduction’. Kathmandu: UNDP.

Van Der Ploeg et.al (2000). Rural development: from practices and policies toward theory. Sociologia Ruralis, (40), 4. Pp. 391-408. Available at < <http://www.ufcg.edu.br/~cedrus/downloads/schneider/rural_evelopment.pdf>.

William, A.T. and Christopher, A.J. (2011). Rural development, concepts and recent approaches. India: Rawat Publications.


 

 

Course Title: Economic Dimension of Rural Development

Course No.: MRDS 552

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                      Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: First                                                                               Total Period: 48

Level: MA

 Course objectives

The overall objective of this course is to impart the knowledge of various economic dimensions of rural development.  The concepts, theories and issues of economic aspects have been introduced so as to provide to the students an ample opportunity to gain insight knowledge on economic dimension of rural development. The core aspect of this course is to enable students to know the theoretical concept of economic development so that the knowledge could be applicable to solve the growing problems and issues of economic development from rural perspective.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit I Introduction (10)

1.1  Concepts of Economic growth, economic progress, and economic welfare

1.2  Concept of National development, regional development and local  development

1.3  Local economic development: concept, principle and goals, actors and determinants

1.4   Different sectors of local economy: Primary, secondary, tertiary

1.5   Economic status of Nepal: Comparative study of rural and urban sector

Unit Two: Indicators of economic development (11)

  • GDP and GNP

2.2   Per-capita income

2.3   Physical quality of life index (PQLI)

2.4   Human development index (HDI)

2.5   Quality of life index

2.6   Comparative study of the indicators in the different development regions of Nepal

Unit III: Relevant theories of economic development and their application in rural context (15)

  • Schultz’s theory of traditional agriculture transformation
  • Lewis theory of unlimited supply of labour
  • Myrdal theory of backward effect
  • Todaro Model of rural-urban migration and unemployment
  • Balanced vs Unbalanced theory

Unit IV: Major Problems and Issues of local economic development in rural context (12)

  • Poverty, inequality and unemployment
  1. Poverty: concept, types
  2. Inequality: concept, dimension, measures(Lorenz curve, Gini-coefficient)
  3. Unemployment: concept, types, causes, consequences, mitigation measures

4.2  Rural remittance and capital formation

4.3 Population growth and rural development

4.4  Food security and agriculture production

4.5 Labour migration and shortage of manpower in agriculture

 

Reference:

Agrawal, G.R.(2012). Entrepreneurship development in Nepal. Kathmandu: M.K. Publisher.

Blackely, E.J.,& Ted, K.B.(2003). Planning local economic development: Theory & practice. New Delhi:Vistaar publication.

CBS (2010/11).Nepal living standard survey III. Kathmandu: CBS.

CBS (2011). Nepal population report, 2011. Kathmandu: CBS

Chambers, R. (1989). Rural development: Putting the last first. London: Longman Publishers

Ministry of Finance (2013). Economic survey of Nepal, 2013/14. Kathmandu: MoF

Haughton, J. & Khandker, S.R. (2009). Poverty ± Inequality. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

Human development reports (latest).

Lekhi, R.K.(2008). Economic development and planning. New Delhi: Kalyani Publisher.

Mathema, K. R. B. (2008). Economics of development. Kirtipur: New Hira Books Enterprises.

National Planning Commission (2013). Interim plan of Nepal. Kathmandu: NPC

Seddon, D. (1998). Nepal: A state of poverty. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Shultz, T. (1962). Transforming traditional agriculture. New Haven: Yale University Press

Singh, K. (2009). Rural development; Principles, policies and management (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Todaro, M.P & Smith, S.C. (2010). Economic development (10th edition). Delhi: Pearson Education Asia.

UNDP. (2004). Nepal human development report, 2004; ‘Empowerment and poverty reduction’. Kathmandu: UNDP.

World Development Reports (latest)

 

 

 

Course Title: Socio-Cultural Dimension of Rural Development

Course No.: MRDS 553

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                      Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: First                                                                               Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course objectives

In general this course aims to deal with socio-cultural factors that are significant in rural development process. The specific aims are to dig up link between social factors and rural development, to analyze various perspectives of sociology and anthropology relevant to rural development and to highlight how socio-anthropological methods are applicable to address socio-cultural issues in Nepal.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit I: Introduction (9)

1.1 Social characteristics of rural Area

1.2 Concept of social development.

1.3 Social indicators of rural development

1.4 Socio-cultural pros and cons for rural development.

1.5 Agrarian structure in rural society: embedded values and relations.

Unit II: Socio-Cultural Perspectives on rural development (15)

2.1 Sociological perspective on rural development (structural-functionalism, conflict and symbolic- interactionism)

2.2 Anthropological paradigm and perspective on rural development.

2.3 Development anthropology and anthropology of development

2.4 Monolithic to polycentric notion of development.

2.5 Development as freedom.

2.6 Third world diversities and dilemmas of development discourse.

Unit III: Factors of Rural Development (15)

3.1 Social cultural and human factors in Rural Development  (with  reference to D.B. Bista’s  and S.C. Dube’s argument)

3.2 Changing strategies in rural livelihood

3.3 Indigenous people, knowledge and institution for Rural Development

3.4 People, Culture and Responsive Development: intervention, acceptance, resistance and response to development

3.5 Process of socio-cultural change in rural context : Cyclical theories, linear theories, conflict theories

Unit IV: Application of Sociological and Anthropological Knowledge (9)

4.1Inevitability of anthropological and sociological knowledge and methods in Rural Development Process

4.2. Application of sociological and anthropological knowledge in addressing the emerging issues of:

  • Cultural ethnocentrism.
  • Cyclic perspectives of human development (infancy to old age)
  • Food security
  • Social Inclusion
  • Corruption

References:

Adhikari, S.P. (2000). Rural development in Nepal: Problems and prospects (2nd ed). Kathmandu: Sajha Prakashan

Anderson, P. (1998). The origin of post modernity. London.Verso.

Arturo E. (1995). Encountering development: The making and unmaking of the third world. Princeton: Princeton University press.

Bista, D.B. (1996). Fatalism and development: Nepal’s struggle for modernization. India: Nirala Publication

Bista, D.B. (1996). People of Nepal. Kathmandu: Sajha Prakashan.

Cernea, M (Ed.). Putting the people first; Sociological variables and rural development. New Work: Oxford University Press

Chambers, R. (1989). Rural development: Putting the last first. London: Longman Publishers.

Desai, A.R. (1992). Rural sociology in India. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan

Doshi, S.L. and Jain, P.C. (2004). Rural sociology. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

Dube, S.C. (2004). Tradition and development. New Delhi: Rawat Publication.

Gardner, K. and David, L. (1996). Anthropology, development and the post-modern challenge. Chicago : Pluto press.

Richard, D. (2006). The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford university press.

Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

UN (1994). Traditional knowledge and sustainable development. Proceedings of the 1993 UN International Year of the World’s Indigenous Conference. New York: United Nations.

 

 

Course Title: Local Governance in Nepal

Course No.:  MRDS 554

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                      Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: First                                                                               Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course objective

The course aims to acquaint students with the knowledge of local governance system in Nepal, decentralization system and practices; development administration and different political ideologies and their application in the field of rural development.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit -1 Local Governance System in Nepal (10)

  • Concepts, types and role of government
  • Local government in Nepal: VDC, Municipalities and DDC with special references of LSGA 2055
  • Concept, elements, characteristics, issues and challenges of good governance
  • Role of different stakeholders in good governance ( market, civil society, NGOs, CBOs)

Unit-2 Decentralization and Rural Development  (15)

2.1 Concept, meaning, challenges and types of decentralization (devolution, delegation and deconcentration)

2.2  Decentralization theory and practices in Nepal

2.3  Concept, context, principles of federalism; challenges and importance of federalism from Nepalese perspective

2.4  Determinants of federalism and its practices in different countries

Unit- 3 Development Administration (8)

3.1 Meaning, concept, evolution, approaches, dimensions, functions, priorities and characteristics

3.2 Development administration in Nepal; practice challenges and prospects

Unit-4 Ideologies of political Economy in Nepal (15)

4.1 Concept, meaning and characteristics of political economy

4.2 Issues of political economy in Nepal

4.3 Three schools of political economy:

– Marxist school of thought

– Liberalist school of thought

– Nationalist school of thought

 

Reference:

Bagchi, A. (1989). The political economy of underdevelopment. New Delhi: Orient Longman.

Basu, D.D. (2008). Comparative federalism. Nagpur: Wadhwa and Company.

Bhatta, B.D. (1990). Decentralization in Nepal. New Delhi: Reliance Publication.

Commeson,  N.T. (2004). Civil society and social movement. New Delhi: Sage publication.

Dahal, D.R. (1994). Decentralization and development in Nepal. Kathmandu: NEFAS

Dahal, R.K. (2005). Rural development politics in Nepal. Kathmandu: Dikshanta Pustak Bandar.

Dahal,R.K.  & Kharel, S. (2008). Local governance and political economy of Nepal. Kathmandu: Dikshanta Pustak Bhandar

Gilpin, R. (1986). The political economy of international relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Gyawali, C.K & Raj, P. (2010). Federalism in the world. Lalitpur: Chandra Kant Gyawali.

Jacob, T. (2007). Federalism and government. Jaipur India: Aavishkar publisher

Kapoor, A.C. (1981). Principles of government. New Delhi: S. Chand Ltd.

Khanal, R. (2005). Donor’s policies against corruption in Nepal. Kathmandu: Transparency International Nepal.

Khanal, R. (2005). Local governance in Nepal: Democracy at grassroots. Kathmandu: Smirti Books.

Majeed, A. (2010). An introduction to federalism. New Delhi: Centre for federal studies

MIREST Nepal, (2013). Local Government in Nepal Series 1 and 2. Lalitpur: MIREST.

Ray, S.N. (1996). Modern comparative politics: approaches, methods and issues. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Sapru, R. K. (1997). Development administration. India: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Sharma, P. (2000). People’s participation in Local development planning. a study of five districts in the Western Development Region. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Tribhuvan University.

Sharma, P. (2003). Local Development planning in Nepal: An empirical experience. Kathmandu: Kshitiz Publication.

Shresth, T.N. (1996). Concept of local government and decentralization. Kathmandu: Joshi Publications.

Upreti, H. (1996). Crisis of governance. Kathmandu: GDS.

 

 

Course Title: Research Methodology for Rural Development

Course No.: MARDS 555

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                                      Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: First                                                                               Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course objective

Rural development is a multidisciplinary discipline that requires knowledge about different social phenomenon and relationships. The rural development practitioners have to dig out those social relationships with the help of social science research. In this regards, the course is aimed to acquaint the students with the knowledge, technique and process of social science research, preparation of research as well as development project proposals. It aims to help students to be an independent researcher in rural development issues by making them capable of following the process of scientific inquiry in rural development issues.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit 1: Concept of social science research (12)

  • Meaning and objectives, nature and types of social science research;
  • Scope and need for research in rural development studies;
  • Operationalization: Concepts, variables, hypothesis and measurement scales;

1.4  Reliability and validity

1.5  Inductive and deductive methods

1.6  Steps in proposal writing.

Unit 2: Research Design (10)

2.1 Meaning, scope and principles of research design;

  1. 2 Types of social research design,

2.4. Development research: Concept and design.

Unit 3: Data Collection and Analysis (16)

3.1Sources of information;

3.2 Census and sample;

3.3 Sampling techniques;

3.4 Methods of Data Collection: Technique and Tools – interview, questionnaire survey, Observation; Key Informant Interview (KII), Institutional Survey, Focus Group Discussion (FGD);

3.5 Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and their tools;

3.6 Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Challenges (SWOC) analysis

3.7. Case Study

Unit 4: Preparation of Research Report (10)

4.1. Procedure for preparing research report;

4.2. Qualities of a good research report;

4.3. Format of the report (including footnotes, quotations and so on);

4.4. Organization of the report;

4.5. Presentation of research report;

4.6. Referencing and plagiarism in research.

Reference:

Babbie, E.R. (2010). The practice of social research, 12th edition. New York: Wadsworth.

Bailey, K.D. (1994). Methods of social research, Fourth Edition. New York: The Free Press.

Baker, T.L. (1999). Doing social research, Third Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education.

Baskota, S. (2004). Research methodology. Kathmandu: New Hira Books.

Bell, J. (1999). How to complete your research project successfully. New Delhi: UBS Publishers and Distributors.

Black, T.R. (2002). Understanding social science research. London: Sage Publication.

Blacok, H.M. (1980). Sociological theory and research: A critical appraisal. New York: Collier Macmillan Publishing.

Creswell, J.H. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five approaches. New Delhi: Sage Publication.

Kanel, N.R. (2002). Treatment of variables in social research. Economic Journal of Development Issues, Vol. 3, No. 1, January-June, pp. 77-84.

Kerlinger, F.N. (2000). Foundation of behavioural research. New Delhi: Surjeet Publication

Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.

Panta. P.R. (2012). Social science research and thesis writing. Kathmandu: Buddha Publication.

Pokhrel, B. (2005). Social research methods. Kathmandu: Dikshanta Pustak Bhandar.

Punch, K.F. (2005). Introduction to social research: quantitative and qualitative approaches. London: Sage Publications.

Sharma, P. (2003). A handbook of social science research methodology. Kathmandu: Kshitiz Prakashan.

Sharma, P. and Wicken, J. (2003). Social science research methods in practical use. Kathmandu: Kshitiz Prakashan.

Walliman. N, (2006). Social research methods. London: Sage Publication.

Wikinson, T.S. and Bhandarkar, P.L. (1979). Methodology and techniques of social research. Mumbai: Himalayan Publishing House.

Young, P.V. (2009). Scientific social survey and research, Fourth Edition. New Delhi: Prentice Hall.