### Paper V: Research Methodology I

**Course Objectives**

The course offers an overview of the main research designs and techniques used in development research. It will address the dichotomy quantitative-qualitative in social research methodology, the key differences between the two approaches and the potential for complementarity. With reference to applied cases the integration of different approaches will be assessed. By the end of the course students should understand basic social research methods from social science perspective, and their applicability in rural development in different contexts. This course will thus equip students with basic capacities to apply research methods to real world problems and evaluate their use in published research.

**Course Outlines LH**

**Unit I: Philosophy of the Social Sciences 9**

- Introduction: Doing Philosophy of Social Science
- Types of Positivism Theories
- Positivism
- Logical Positivism
- Post-positivism (post-empiricism)
**Quantitative and Qualitative Debate 9**- Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods
- Triangulation
- Quantitative Research Process
- Qualitative Research Process

**Unit III: Varieties of Social Explanation 21**

- Introduction: Scientific Explanation
- Models of Explanation
- Causal Analysis
- Rational Choice Theory
- Interpretation Theory
- Variation and Elaboration
- Functional and Structural Explanation
- Materialism
- Economic Anthropology
- Statistical Analysis
- Current Controversies
- Methodological Individualism
- Relativism
- Towards Methodological Pluralism

**Unit IV: Writing Proposal 9**

**References:**

Agassi, Joseph (1960). Methodological individualism. *The British Journal of Sociology, 11(3), 244-270.*

Denzin, N. K. & Y. Lincoln (2005). Introduction: Discipline and practice of qualitative research. In Norman K. Denzin & Yvonna S. Lincoln (Eds.), *The sage handbook of qualitative research (Third edition) (pp. 1-32).* Thousand Oak, USA: Sage Publication.

Denzin, N. K. & Y. Lincoln (eds.) (2005). *The sage handbook of qualitative research (Third edition).* Thousand Oak, USA: Sage Publication.

Heidtman, Joanna, Kinga, Wysienska & Jacek Szmatka (2000). Positivism and types of theories in sociology. *Sociological Focus, 33(1), 1-26.*

Friedman, Michael (1999). Introduction. *Reconsidering logical positivism (pp.1-16)*. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Kincaid, Harold (2012). Introduction: Doing philosophy of social science. In Harold Kincaid (Ed.), *The Oxford handbook of philosophy of social science (pp.3-20)*. USA: Oxford University Press.

Little, Deniel (1991). *Varieties of social explanation*. San Francisco: Westview Press

Michael Martin & Lee McIntyre (Eds.) (1994). *Readings in the philosophy of social science*. MIT Press.

Popper, Karl (2002). *The logic of scientific discovery*. London: UK: Routledge

### Paper VI: Research Methodology II

This paper will be developed by Dean’s Office.

### Paper VII: Data Analysis with Computer Software

**Course Objectives**

This course is among the cross-cutting courses for PhD students to expand their academic and practical comprehension of applied statistics in the quantitative paradigm using SPSS/STATA/R for the interpretation of data and the qualitative software are the major computer software. The objective of this course is to make students familiar with the following applied statistical tools and methods in Rural Development.

**Course Outlines LH**

**Unit I: Review of Statistics 12**

1.1 Descriptive Statistics

- Measures of Central Tendency
- Measures of Dispersion
- Coefficient of Regression and Correlation

1.2 Inferential Statistics

- Sampling Theory
- Parametric and Non-Parametric Tests
- Analysis of Variance

**Unit II: Introduction to SPSS/STATA/R 9**

**Unit III: Quantitative Data Analysis 18 **

3.1 Descriptive Statistics

3.2 Coefficient of Correlation and Regression

3.3 Non-parametric Tests

3.4 Multivariate Analysis

3.5 Principal Components Analysis

3.6 Factor Analysis

3.7 Cluster Analysis

**Unit IV: Qualitative Data Analysis with Computer Software 9**

4.1 Introduction to Computer Software (e.g., ATLAS.ti)

4.2 Qualitative Research Characteristics

4.3 Qualitative Data Analytic Strategies

4.4 Data Level work with Computer Software (e.g., ATLAS.ti)

4.5 Objects of an Analysis Data

4.6 Analysis Tools

4.7 Exporting the Grouped Data

4.8 Backing-up the Grouped Data

**References:**

Bartholomew, D. J., F. Steele, I. Moustaki, & J. Galbraith (2008). *Analysis of multivariate social science data (Second edition)* UK: Chapman and Hall.

Dillion, W.R. & Goldstein, M. (1984). *Multivariate Analysis*. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Kish, Leslie, (1995). *Survey sampling*. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Kothari, C.R., (1985). *Research methodology: Methods and techniques*. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Limited.

Nachmais, C. F. & D, Nachmais (1996). *Research methods in the social sc*iences. New York: St. Martin Press.

Lewins, A. & C. Silver (2007). *Using software in qualitative research: A Step-by-Step Guide (Second edition)*. India: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Trochim, William M. (2003). *Research methods knowledge base*. New York: Atomic Dog Publishing.