MA Fourth Semester

Course Title: Natural Resource Management (NRM)

Course No.: MRDS 581

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                                 Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Fourth                                                                           Total Period: 48

Level: MA


Course objectives

This course is prepared to impart students with the knowhow of environmental and natural resources. Specifically, this course acquaints students with theoretical and practical knowledge of natural resource management techniques and tools while working in the field of development.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit I: Concept of Natural Resources Management:                                                 8

  • Concept Types and Status of Natural Resources
  • Environmental Problem/crisis
  • Natural resource management and rural development
  • Different thought of Human-nature interrelationship (Determinism, Possibilism and Interactionalism)

Unit II: Issues of Natural Resource Management:                                                     12

  • Water Induced Disaster and its Management
  • Land degradation: Causes and Consequences
  • Land Resource Use System: Shifting Cultivation, Transhumance and Integrated Farming System
  • Payment of Environmental Services
  • Reducing of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)

Unit III: Approaches, Policy and Practices of Natural Resource Management: 13

  • Water Related Policies in Nepal
  • Natural Resource Conflict Management
  • Wetland and watershed Management
  • Community based Natural Resource Management
  • Common Pool Resource Management (G. Hardin and Then after)

Chapter IV: Techniques and Tools for Natural Resources Management:            15

  • Identification of key environmental issues and determination of priority order
  • DPSIR (Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) Analytical Framework
  • Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Analysis (SIA)
  • Vulnerability Capacity Assessment


Barrow, C J. (2000). Environmental Management: Principle and Practices. London: Routledge

Bhusal, M.P. (2012). Natural Resource Management (in Nepali). Kathmandu: Pairavi Prakashan.

Bishop, B C (1991). Karnali under Stress: Livelihood Strategies and Seasonal Rhythms in a Changing Nepal Himalaya. Chicago: The University Press.

Brower, B. (1990). Sherap of Khumbu: People, Livestock and Landscape. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chhetri R. B. & Gurung O. eds. (1999). Anthropology and sociology in Nepal. Kathmandu: SASON.

Disaster Review (current), Water Induced Disaster Prevention Technical Centre (DPTC), Lalitpur, Nepal.

Environmental Protection Council (1993). Nepal Environmental Policy and Action Plan: Integrated Environment and Development. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission.

FAO (1976). A framework for Land Evaluation 1976. FAO

George, H, Stankey, Roger N, Clark, B & Bormann, T (2005). Adaptive Management of Natural Resources: Theory, Concepts, and Management Institutions. USDA.

ICIMOD/UNEP/MOEST. (2007). Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook 2007. Kathmandu: ICIMOD.

Ives, J D & Messerli, B (1989). Himalayan Dilemma: Reconciling Development and Conservation. London: Routledge.

Karkee, K., (2004). Land degradation in Nepal: A menace to economy and ecosystems international Master’s Programme in environmental science, University of Lund, Sweden.

Kenddeigh, S C (1980). Ecology: With Special Reference to Animal and Man. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Kunwar, K.J. (2008). Payment of Environmental Services: A case study of Shivapuri National Park, Kathmandu, Nepal. The Initiative 2008. Accessed from

MoI (2006). Water Induced Disaster Management Policy. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal, Ministry of Irrigation.

MoWR. (2007). Development of Database for Irrigation Development in Nepal. Lalitpur: Government of Nepal, Ministry of Water Resources, Department of Irrigation, Planning, Design, and Monitoring & Evaluation Division.

Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pradhan, P.K & Pradhan, B. (2012). Environment and Natural Resources: Concepts, Methods, Planning and Management. Kathmandu: Quest Publication.

Shukla et al. (1997). Participatory irrigation management in Nepal, Department of Irrigation, Kathmandu.

Stevens, S. F. (1993). Claiming the High Grounds: Sherpas, Submsistences and Environmental Change in the Highest Himalaya. Berkeley: University of California Press.

UNEP (1997). Global Environmental Outlook. United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP).

UNEP (2001). Nepal: State of the Environment 2001. Bangkok: UNEP.













Course Title: Human Resources Development


Course No.: MRDS 582

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                                 Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Fourth                                                                           Total Period: 48

Level: MA



Course objective

The objective of the course is to teach the basic concept of human resource planning, development and management—how an organization acquires, rewards, motivates, uses, and generally manages its staffs effectively. The course will introduce the students to practices and techniques for evaluating performance, structuring teams, coaching and mentoring staffs, and performing the wide range of other people related duties of a manager in today’s increasingly complex workplace.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit I: Introduction:                                                                                                          12

Meaning, Nature and Scope of HRD,

Difference between HRD and Personnel Development,

Principles and objectives of HRD,

Policy and challenges of HRD in Nepal.

Unit II: Human Resources Planning:                                                                             14

Human Resources planning: Definition, purposes, steps and limiting factors.

Job Analysis: Products of job analysis (Job Description, Job Specification), process, methods

Recruitment and Selection: recruitment sources, process, and selection methods

Unit III: Human Resources Development Process:                                                                12

Training and career development: Purpose, Design and development.

Factors affecting human resource development: Leadership, Motivation, Decision making process, Negotiation and Agreement skills, team work and Group dynamics, Communication skills.

Unit IV: Human Resources Management:                                                                    10

Discipline and Grievance Procedures

Promotion, Transfer and Separation

Performance Management System

Change management



Armstrong, M.(2009). Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page.

Aswathappa, K.(2012).Human resource management(6th ed). New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Ltd.

Dessler, G. and Varkkey, B.(2011). Human resource management.(12th ed). New Delhi:Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd.

Gupta, C.B.(2008). Human resource management(19th ed). New Delhi: Sultan Chand and Sons.

Martin, J.(2010). Key concepts in human resource management. New Delhi: Sage.

Mukherjee, J.(2012). Designing human resource management systems. New Delhi: Sage Response.




















Course Title: Agriculture and Rural Development (Optional)

Course No.: MRDS 584

Nature of the Course: Theory and practical                             Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                                 Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Forth                                                                             Total Period: 48

Level: MA


Course objectives

This course intends to enable students to have sound knowledge of the theories of agricultural development, agriculture and rural development, agriculture policy and programs, agriculture modernization and entrepreneurship development, and agriculture finance. After completing this course the students will prepare a mini-research report on agriculture and rural development based on the field survey data.


Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH


Unit I: Nepalese Agriculture Situation:                                                                                    10

  • Characteristics of Nepalese agriculture
  • Factors of agriculture transformation (physical, social, economic and institutional)
  • Agricultural production practices (subsistence, commercialized, integrated farming system, co-operative farming)


Unit II: Theories of Agricultural Development:                                                         12

  • Jorgenson’s Dual Economy Model
  • John Mellor’s Theory of Agricultural Development
  • Boserup’s Theory of Agrarian Change

2.4   Theory of Induced Innovation in Agricultural Development


Unit III: Agricultural Policy and Programs in Nepal:                                                                       14

  • Agricultural extension program and its efforts in Nepal
  • Agricultural intensification and diversification in Nepal
  • Agriculture development programs in national development plans
  • Livestock and crop insurance policy in Nepal.
  • One Village/District One Product Program (OVOP/ODOP)



Unit IV: Farm Mechanization and Agricultural Entrepreneurship Development:         6

  • Adoption of new technologies in Nepalese agriculture
  • Farmers entrepreneurship development
  • Land utilization and cropping pattern


Unit V: Agricultural Finance:                                                                                                     6

  • Conceptual bases of agricultural finance
  • History, development and mechanisms of agricultural finance in Nepal
  • Agricultural finance institutions (microfinance institutions and farmers co-operatives)





APPROSC/JMA (1995). Nepal agriculture perspective plan. Kathmandu: Agricultural Projects Services Center.

Boserup, E. (1965). Conditions of agricultural growth. New York: Aldin.

CBS (2012). National census of agriculture (2011). Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics.

Ghatak S. and Ingersent, K. (1984). Agriculture and economic development. New York : Select Book.

Hayami, Y. and Vernon W. R. (1985). Agricultural Ddvelopment: An international perspective. Baltimore: John Hopkins Universtiy Press.

KES (1986). Land resource mapping project: Land utilization report. Kathmandu: Department of Survey.

Mahbub Ul Haq Human Development Center. (2003). Human development in South Asia, agriculture and rural devleopment. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mellor, J. W. (1966). The economics of agricultural development. Ithaca: Cornell University.

MOA (current). Statistical information on Nepalese agriculture. Kathmandu: Ministry of Agriculture.

Silwal, U. K. (2003). Relationships between population growth and agricultural change in Nepal: A regional analysis. Kathmandu: Thopal Prakashan.

World Bank (2008). World development report. (2008). Agricultural for development. Washington DC: World Bank.

























Course Title: Rural Marketing and Entrepreneurship Development(Optional)


Course No.:  MRDS 585

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                     Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                                 Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Fourth                                                                           Total Period: 48

Level: MA


Course aim and objectives

This course aims to impart student the concept of rural marketing and entrepreneurship development. It will enhance their skill to analyze the nature, process and strategies associated with marketing and its relationship with rural small entrepreneur. After completion of this course students will be able to create jobs in rural areas by opening up a rural based businesses and being an entrepreneur.

Course contents                                                                                                                  LH

Unit- I Introduction:                                                                                                          10

Meaning of marketing, Marketing concepts, The new discipline; rural marketing meaning, nature and importance of rural marketing, Rural marketing vs urban marketing, rural marketing mix; 5Ps( product, price, place, promotion, people), Problems in rural marketing

Unit- II Rural market:                                                                                                      5

Meaning of market and rural market, Characteristics of rural market based on people, Occupational pattern, Land-use pattern, Communication and information, Recreation, Credit intuitions

Unit –III Agricultural marketing:                                                                                 8

Concept,  Nature of agricultural marketing as complex one, Agricultural marketing inputs and their types, Importance of agricultural marketing for economic development, Cooperative marketing, Agricultural marketing in Nepal; problems and prospects

Unit –IV Understanding the Rural Consumers:                                                          5

Consumers of rural market ; (Government, Local People, Tourists, Urban People ) Profile of rural Nepalese consumer, Rural consumer behaviour, Factors of affecting consumers buying behaviour –

Unit -V Rural Marketing Strategies:                                                                             10

Rural market segmentation, Implementation of rural marketing strategies;

(1) Product; concept, types, product life cycle, product mix, new product development, grading, labeling, branding, standardization, packaging, productification of rurality, value added rural marketing.

(2) Pricing: concept, price determination factor; internal and external, pricing strategies

(c) Place/ distribution;  concept, physical supply; transport system, designing channel of distribution; wholesaler, retailer, cooperatives.

(d) Promotion mix; advertisement, public relation, personal sale, sales support.


Unit -VI Entrepreneurship:                                                                                              5

Concept and types; sole trading, partnership, company, community

Role of entrepreneurship in economic development; Women entrepreneurship; concept and problems

Factors affecting entrepreneurship growth; economic and non-economic factors

Risk in entrepreneurship; Types of risk; financial, career, family and social etc.


Unit- VII Venture Identification, Selection and Registration:                                 5

Identification of business opportunities, sources and methods of generating new ideas

Selection of best idea; cost –benefit, profit and loss, SWOT analysis,

Legal process for establishing a new venture



Agrawal, G. R. (2006). Entrepreneurship development in Nepal. Kathmandu: MK Publishers

Badi, R.V and NV Badi (2008). Rural Marketing. India: Meena Pandey

Basyal, R. (2008). Rural development, Practices in SAARC countries, some innovative cases. Kathmandu: Richa Basyal

Dhameja, S. K. (2004). Women entrepreneurs. India: Deep and Deep Publications

Kashyap, P. and Siddhartha, R. (2009). Rural Marketing. India: Biztantra

Koirala, K. D. (2010). Principles of marketing. Kathmandu: MK Publishers

Poudel, K. L. (2008). Agribusiness management. Nepal: HICAST

Poudyal, S. R. and D. M. Ghimire (2065BS). Udhyamsila Bikash (in Nepali). Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Publishers and Distributors

Yadav, R. (2002). A new perspectives on rural marketing. India: Jico Publishing House.